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Climate Focus Publications

Climate Focus has published extensively on climate policy and carbon markets. Numerous papers, reports and presentations are available for public access via our website.

LAND USE IN A FUTURE CLIMATE AGREEMENT

LAND USE IN A FUTURE CLIMATE AGREEMENT

Estrada, M., Lee, D., Murray, B., O’Sullivan, R., Penman, J., and Streck, C. 2014 - June 2014

Charlotte Streck joined the team of expert authors producing an options assessment report "Land Use in a Future Climate Agreement". Prepared with support from cooperative agreement #S-LMAQM-13-CA-1128 with U.S. Department of State.

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Analyses and briefings

SUMMARY OF THE NEGOTIATIONS ON THE REVISION OF THE MODALITIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE CDM <em>SBI 40</em>

SUMMARY OF THE NEGOTIATIONS ON THE REVISION OF THE MODALITIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE CDM SBI 40

World Bank Carbon Initiative for Development - July 2014

The Modalities and Procedures of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM M&P) are the rulebook for the CDM specifying inter alia its governance structure, the steps of the project cycle and the principles for crediting emission reductions. When the CDM M&P were adopted in 2005, Parties agreed to a review process starting in 2013. This briefing paper provides the status of CDM M&P negotiations at the most recent SBI 40 session in Bonn.

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CDM negotiations in Warsaw - <em>Small reform or pathway to transition?</em>

CDM negotiations in Warsaw - Small reform or pathway to transition?

Sandra Greiner - December 2013

Lately market participants have come to expect little excitement from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). As the market continues to be depressed with no recovery of demand in sight, changing the rulebook of the CDM may not seem like a priority. Yet in Warsaw Parties were tasked to do just that: review the underlying rules of the CDM, its Modalities and Procedures (M&P), as part of a long planned mandate. What could have been treated as a fulfillment of the mandate with minimal effort opened the door for a wider reconsideration of the fundamentals of the CDM, triggering a diversity of views and sometimes heated debate. Outside the limelight of the Warsaw negotiations, Parties discussed rather big changes to the CDM, including how it could be transformed into a tool with broader applicability, fitting wider purposes than offsetting by Annex I countries and thereby opening up new sources of demand. Parties also discussed rethinking some of the basic guidance on the project cycle, the institutional architecture of the CDM and eligibility of projects.

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Climate Focus Warsaw Briefing

Climate Focus Warsaw Briefing

Climate Focus - December 2013

The newly published Climate Focus briefing note on COP 19/CMP9 in Warsaw gives a complete overview of the main decisions taken by the COP and CMP and provides our perspective on what was achieved (and what was not) and the way forward to Paris.

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Cycling - Climate Finance Briefing

Cycling - Climate Finance Briefing

Climate Focus - May 2013

The transport sector represents a major share in global emissions but has been largely neglected by the carbon markets.

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THE WHY AND HOW OF SUBNATIONAL REDD+

THE WHY AND HOW OF SUBNATIONAL REDD+

Climate Focus - May 2013

In conjunction with its work with the Governor’s Climate and Forest Task Force (GCF), Climate Focus has developed a background brief explaining the significance of subnational initiatives for REDD+ and the means by which they may be implemented in making progress towards national reductions of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).

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Acre, Brazil: Subnational Leader in REDD+

Acre, Brazil: Subnational Leader in REDD+

Climate Focus - May 2013

This brief describes the pioneering example of the state of Acre, Brazil in recent years in curbing its deforestation and forest degradation while simultaneously strengthening its sustainable economic development.

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Fuel Subsidies and Climate Finance <em>Using climate finance to remove fuel subsidies</em>

Fuel Subsidies and Climate Finance Using climate finance to remove fuel subsidies

Climate Focus - March 2013

In our most recent discussion paper Climate Focus proposes to use climate finance mechanisms to support the removal of fossil fuel subsidies in developing countries. Globally, countries spent USD 523 billion on fossil fuel consumption subsidies in 2011, presenting a major barrier for a paradigm shift away from fossil fuels.

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New Market Mechanism brief

New Market Mechanism brief

Climate Focus - August 2012

In Durban the Conference of the Parties “defined” a New Market-based Mechanism (NMM). While the design of the NMM is still under discussion, proposals from Parties and pilot initiatives run by a variety of organisations are beginning to lend shape to how this new mechanism could work in practice. At the same time, key questions remain unanswered, including where demand will come from and what the role of the private sector will be. This brief provides an overview of the basic principles underlying the NMM before describing the options on the table for its design then providing insights into key issues such as demand sources, the relationship with other mechanism and how the private sector can become involved in the NMM in the near term.

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EU ETS Large Credit Restrictions for Large Hydropower Projects

EU ETS Large Credit Restrictions for Large Hydropower Projects

Climate Focus - May 2012

Recently speculation has arisen in some quarters that the European Commission may be planning to restrict carbon credits generated by large hydropower projects. The Commission has been clear that no such restrictions are currently planned, though they could be considered in future depending on the outcome of ongoing initiatives to tackle additionality, sustainability and EU ETS demand. 

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CP17/CMP7 Durban Debrief

CP17/CMP7 Durban Debrief

Climate Focus - January 2012

The 17th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (CP17) and 7th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP7) held in Durban, South Africa, from 28th November to 11th December 2011 each produced landmark decisions.

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Agriculture and Climate Change Policy Brief <em>Main Issues for UNFCCC and Beyond</em>

Agriculture and Climate Change Policy Brief Main Issues for UNFCCC and Beyond

Charlotte Streck (Lead Author), Bruce Campbell, Wendy Mann, Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz, Timm Tennigkeit, Andreas Wilkes, Donna Lee (Editor for Policy Brief) - November 2011

This policy brief is a condensed version of the Agriculture and Climate Change: A Scoping Report. This summary seeks to provide key points for policymakers focusing on the unique aspects of agriculture when considered in the context of climate change.  It emphasizes actions that can be taken when considering agriculture’s multiple objectives, from providing adequate food for growing populations to protecting the environment and ensuring resilience to future climatic changes.

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Piloting carbon trading in China

Piloting carbon trading in China

Karla Lieberg and Jelmer Hoogzaad - November 2011

China has ambitious plans to reduce the carbon intensity of it economy by 40~45% by 2020 against 2005 levels. The country is taking this commitment serious and less than two years after their announcement in Copenhagen, China has made significant progress in specifying the targets, incorporating them into national development strategies and notably, laying the foundation for pilot emission reduction incentive or trading schemes.

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Micro-Scale Additionality Guidelines <em>Opportunities and Challenges for PoAs</em>

Micro-Scale Additionality Guidelines Opportunities and Challenges for PoAs

Bamshad Houshyani - November 2011

In its 63rd meeting, the CDM Executive Board (EB63), upgraded the Guidelines for Demonstrating Additionality of Micro-scale Project Activities (the Guidelines) to version 03 and included additional updates. However, the new guidelines fail to resolve an essential flaw: the capacity cap introduced for project activity is confirmed to equally apply to CDM programme activities (CPAs).

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CDM Stakeholder Workshop <em>Standards and Programme of Activities</em>

CDM Stakeholder Workshop Standards and Programme of Activities

Jelmer Hoogzaad - September 2011

The UNFCCC Secretariat is developing a new category of CDM rules and procedures: “Standards”. Standards are meant to consolidate existing decisions and guidance. The Secretariat presented the first Standards on Programme of Activities (PoAs) in a recent stakeholder workshop.

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Carbon Market and Climate Finance for Agriculture in Developing Countries

Carbon Market and Climate Finance for Agriculture in Developing Countries

Climate Focus, UNIQUE and IIASA - June 2011

The attached study by Climate Focus, UNIQUE and IIASA assesses the value and effectiveness of carbon market and climate finance strategies to enhance agricultural investment and food security in developing countries, particularly for smallholders, while reducing GHG emissions. The assessment has been commissioned by the UK Department for International Development to inform recommendations to implement these strategies through national development policies or international agreements and cooperation.

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Nesting Projects and REDD+ Briefing Document

Nesting Projects and REDD+ Briefing Document

Forest Trends and Climate Focus - May 2011

This paper aims at providing some clarity on the options available for nesting project-level activities with national, and possibly subnational, accounting frameworks in the context of reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation, and for the conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+).

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Analysis of the design options for NAMAs and their regulatory framework

Analysis of the design options for NAMAs and their regulatory framework

Climate Focus - April 2011

A robust international framework for NAMAs needs to be developed. Our analysis identifies three key challenges. The first is to design a performance matrix that allows for both effective MRV and international support of NAMAs. The second is to attract private funding to complement public pledges for support. The third is to ensure complementarity among existing and emerging mechanisms to credit and support emission reductions in developing countries.

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CP16/CMP6:Cancun Agreements <em>Summary and Analysis</em>

CP16/CMP6:Cancun Agreements Summary and Analysis

Climate Focus - January 2011

The results of CP16/CMP6 in Cancún, Mexico, held from November 29 through December 10, 2010, offer a reason to celebrate even though a post-2012 climate deal was not struck and thorny issues will remain unresolved until next year at CP17/CMP7 in Durban, South Africa. Both the UNFCCC as well as the Kyoto Protocol governing bodies adopted comprehensive, new and substantive decisions in Cancún.

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Policy Brief: Role of Climate Finance in Agriculture

Policy Brief: Role of Climate Finance in Agriculture

Charlotte Streck and Michael Coren - November 2010

Climate finance, particularly fast-track funds, offers an opportunity to strengthen food security and drive climate mitigation and adaptation in developing countries. Climate Focus is leading a consortium for DFID to examine how climate finance can incentivize climate mitigation and food security for agriculture in the developing world.

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Comments submitted to the California Air Resources Board

Comments submitted to the California Air Resources Board

Robert O’Sullivan and Alexander Rau - August 2010

Following a public Workshop held July 30, 2010 by the California Air Resources Board on the design of California’s emerging cap and trade program, Climate Focus and Climate Wedge submitted comments related to sector based crediting and subnational reduction of emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD).

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Tool for the estimation of carbon credits from biogas

Tool for the estimation of carbon credits from biogas

Climate Focus - May 2010

Climate Focus together with EnD-I AG have developed a biogas estimation tool that allows project developers to assess the potential JI or CDM compliant emission reductions from a biogas investment and optimise their investment strategy and feedstock procurement.

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Estimated REDD Credit Supply into International Carbon Markets by 2035

Estimated REDD Credit Supply into International Carbon Markets by 2035

Michael Coren and Charlotte Streck - April 2010

Climate Focus has released a study commissioned by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) to assess the supply of high quality REDD + credits for international carbon markets (2011-2035).

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Study: African Agricultural Carbon Facility

Study: African Agricultural Carbon Facility

Climate Focus, Forest Trends, and Ecoagriculture partners - March 2010

The Rockefeller Foundation commissioned an assessment of the investment potential for agricultural carbon in Africa that could improve soil fertility, enhance carbon stocks and contribute to food security.

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Roundtable on Article 24a of the revised EU ETS Directive

Roundtable on Article 24a of the revised EU ETS Directive

Moritz von Unger - March 2010

On the 1st of March 2010, Climate Focus, together with the Belgian Ministry of Health Food Chain Safety and Environment and Caisse des dépôts, organised a roundtable held in Brussels on the potentials of Article 24a of the revised EU ETS Directive for developing a system of domestic offsets within the European Union. Representatives of the EU Commission, the Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee, Member States, the private sector and research institutes actively participated with presentations and discussions.

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The Challenge of Urgency: Incentivizing Private Sector Early Action in REDD+

The Challenge of Urgency: Incentivizing Private Sector Early Action in REDD+

Charlotte Streck, Anna Lehmann, Alexander Rau, Michael Coren - February 2010

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) hosted the second annual Forest Carbon Finance Summit: Getting to Scale, Getting Results on February 25-27, 2010 in Washington, DC.  Climate Focus co-authored two papers for the event including “Options for Managing Financial Flows from REDD+" and “The Challenge of Urgency: Incentivizing Private Sector Early Action in REDD+.” Leaders in the forest carbon finance field gathered to move the conversation on REDD+ from a conceptual level to a practical one focused on how carbon markets, public finance, and new mechanisms can be used to channel capital to forest conservation.

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Options for Managing Financial Flows from REDD+

Options for Managing Financial Flows from REDD+

Charlotte Streck, Manuel Estrada Porrua, Carina Bracer, Michael Coren - February 2010

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) hosted the second annual Forest Carbon Finance Summit: Getting to Scale, Getting Results on February 25-27, 2010 in Washington, DC.  Climate Focus co-authored two papers for the event including “Options for Managing Financial Flows from REDD+" and “The Challenge of Urgency: Incentivizing Private Sector Early Action in REDD+.” Leaders in the forest carbon finance field gathered to move the conversation on REDD+ from a conceptual level to a practical one focused on how carbon markets, public finance, and new mechanisms can be used to channel capital to forest conservation.

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Assignment of Study on Carbon Finance for Chinese Building Sector

Assignment of Study on Carbon Finance for Chinese Building Sector

Climate Focus - December 2009

The German Ministry of the Environment (BMU) has appointed a consortium of Tsinghua University, Climate Focus and four other organisations to evaluate and test the application of carbon financing instruments to the Chinese building sector.

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Joint Implementation in Russia <em>New Approval Regulations Adopted by the Russian Government</em>

Joint Implementation in Russia New Approval Regulations Adopted by the Russian Government

Climate Focus - December 2009

In a brief of 15 December 2009 Climate Focus gives an overview of the new rules.

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Private sector and the international climate change negotiations- developing options for institutional engagement

Private sector and the international climate change negotiations- developing options for institutional engagement

World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Ecofys, Climate Focus - November 2009

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Ecofys and Climate Focus have been awarded a study contract by the European Commission to look into possible design options for effective and formal private sector engagement within the international climate change policy development and implementation process.

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China and Climate Change

China and Climate Change

Climate Focus - October 2009

In order to clarify China's position concerning climate change, Climate Focus has prepared a briefing note that outlines the country's domestic Policies and it's role in International Negotiations.

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Financing Climate Change: Institutional Aspects of a Post 2012 Framework Dr. Charlotte Streck Climate Focus January 2009 Discussion Paper April

Financing Climate Change: Institutional Aspects of a Post 2012 Framework Dr. Charlotte Streck Climate Focus January 2009 Discussion Paper April

Dr. Charlotte Streck - April 2009

The objective of this paper is to assess design options for an institutional financial architecture supporting a new global climate deal. It aims to support an informal dialogue and consultation process among key policy makers and officials engaged in the negotiations of a reformed financial mechanism under the UNFCCC beyond 2012. This paper elaborates on some of the prominent proposals submitted by UNFCCC Parties, experts, and nongovernmental organizations for a scaled-up and reformed financial mechanism to assist developing countries in fulfilling their obligations under the Convention and responding to the adverse effects of climate change.

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Sectoral Transformation Plans as Strategic Planning Tools

Sectoral Transformation Plans as Strategic Planning Tools

Dr. Charlotte Streck - January 2009

This papers proposes a process that encourages developing and industrialized countries alike in taking first steps of identifying ways developing countries can contribute to climate change mitigation. The process draws on lessons learned in the emerging Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) readiness process.

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Financing REDD A review of selected policy proposals

Financing REDD A review of selected policy proposals

Dr. Charlotte Streck - January 2009

Over the last three years, international- and national-level work on behalf of many government and nongovernment actors in industrial and non-Annex I countries has given rise to the development of various proposals on how to structure adequate policy incentives for REDD within the context of the UNFCCC and the second commitment phase of the Kyoto Protocol. The present memo summarizes the financing aspects of the various REDD proposals currently being discussed at the international level.

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What is the right scale for REDD?: The implications of national, subnational and nested approaches

What is the right scale for REDD?: The implications of national, subnational and nested approaches

CIFOR, also co-authored by Charlotte Streck - November 2008

CIFOR Produced two Infobriefs that were also co-authored by Charlotte Streck on these same subjects, one of them is Infobrief 15: What is the right scale for REDD?

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Related Dependent Documents

Financing REDD: Linking country needs and financing sources

Financing REDD: Linking country needs and financing sources

CIFOR, also co-authored by Charlotte Streck - November 2008

Infobrief 17: Financing REDD: Linking country needs and financing sources

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Climate focus participates in proposing reform and expansion of JI

Climate focus participates in proposing reform and expansion of JI

Climate Focus - July 2008

Climate Focus, as part of the Joint Implementation Action Group (JIAG), has outlined the advantages of a strengthened JI mechanism beyond 2012. The papers propose various reforms to further expand and strengthen the current JI. Please click here to download the Legal Paper and here to download the Policy Paper.

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Climate Focus comments on the validation and verification manual.

Climate Focus comments on the validation and verification manual.

Climate Focus - June 2008

Climate Focus submitted its comments to the CDM Executive Board on the draft of the updated version of the validation and verification manual.

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Climate Focus view on the treatment of hydropower projects in the EU ETS.

Climate Focus view on the treatment of hydropower projects in the EU ETS.

Climate Focus - June 2008

Climate Focus views on the draft documents prepared by the Ad hoc Working Group of Working Group 3 (Emissions Trading of the Climate Change Committee and the Commission) proposing the harmonization of approval procedures by Member States applicable to CDM hydroelectric project activities with generating capacity above 20 MW.

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Warner Lieberman Climate Security Act  - Post-scriptum document

Warner Lieberman Climate Security Act - Post-scriptum document

Climate Focus - May 2008

Client briefing dedicated to US climate law. It summarizes the main features of the Climate Security Act. The act, sponsored by the Senators Lieberman and Warner, is currently the most prominent piece of proposed US federal climate legislation. Furthermore, Climate Focus prepared a post-scriptum which summarizes the main changes as included in the revised Climate Security Act that was released on 22 May 2008.

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Warner Lieberman Climate Security Act

Warner Lieberman Climate Security Act

Climate Focus - May 2008

Client briefing dedicated to US climate law. It summarizes the main features of the Climate Security Act. The act, sponsored by the Senators Lieberman and Warner, is currently the most prominent piece of proposed US federal climate legislation. Furthermore, Climate Focus prepared a post-scriptum which summarizes the main changes as included in the revised Climate Security Act that was released on 22 May 2008.

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Related Dependent Documents

Treatment of CERs and ERUs under the EU ETS III

Treatment of CERs and ERUs under the EU ETS III

Climate Focus - May 2008

The EU Commission’s proposal for the EU ETS III period contains many positive features and suggestions for EU ETS reform, but provides a very weak and disappointing support for future CDM and JI projects. This memo summarizes the treatment of CERs and ERUs (and other international offsets) as presented in this proposal.

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Trading secondary CERs from Hydropower Projects above 20MW.

Trading secondary CERs from Hydropower Projects above 20MW.

Climate Focus - May 2008

EU member states’ requirements for the approval of large hydro CDM project has generated confusion. This memo provides an update on the discussion and looks ahead and assesses EU wide attempts to harmonise the approval requirements.

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Afforestation and reforestation submission sent to the UNFCCC

Afforestation and reforestation submission sent to the UNFCCC

by Climate Focus and a group of collaborators - March 2008

A submission on ways to strengthen the effectiveness of the CDM was sent to the UNFCCC on March 2008 by Climate Focus and a group of collaborators. It discusses ways to improve the scope, effectiveness and functioning of afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities under the CDM with the recognition that doing so will help enhance the regional distribution of CDM projects.

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Briefing Note: LULUCF amendment to the EU ETS

Briefing Note: LULUCF amendment to the EU ETS

Charlotte Streck and Robert O’Sullivan, - March 2006

The 9th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (December 2003) adopted the modalities and procedures for the inclusion of afforestation and reforestation (A/R) projects in the CDM. In the light of the application of these modalities, the Commission is to give due consideration to whether and, if so, how credits from land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) activities could be used in entity-level emissions trading in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). This briefing note does not anticipate any political decision on the topic, but rather looks at how an amendment to Directive 2003/87/EC (as amended by Directive 2004/101/EC) could be drafted in case the EU law maker decides to allow the use of CERs from A/R project activities and ERUs from LULUCF project activities for compliance under the EU ETS.

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Articles and reports

The Geographical Distribution of Climate Finance for Agriculture

The Geographical Distribution of Climate Finance for Agriculture

Jelmer Hoogzaad, Janis Hoberg, Franziska Haupt - July 2014

The agricultural sector has benefited little from climate finance, neither from public nor from private sources. Considering the relevance of the sector for human and economic development of many countries, the allocation of climate finance remains sobering and inadequate.

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NEW SOURCES OF CLIMATE FINANCE FOR CLEAN COOKING INITIATIVES FINAL REPORT

NEW SOURCES OF CLIMATE FINANCE FOR CLEAN COOKING INITIATIVES FINAL REPORT

Sandra Greiner, Hilda Galt, Suzy Huber, Patrick O'Reilly, Charlie Parker, John Costenbader - June 2014

Clean cooking technologies have a large potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions with additional benefits for health, development and the quality of life for users. Unfortunately, the Programme of Activities mechanism that enables these projects to access carbon finance took off only just before the carbon markets crashed. Climate financiers have the opportunity to use this momentum to ensure that win-win clean cooking technologies are supported. With this goal in mind, Climate Focus has recently published the report New Sources of Climate Finance for Clean Cooking Initiatives for the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. A follow-up paper is in the making on Exploring Linkages between REDD+ and Clean Cookstoves, which discusses opportunities for aligning these two factors to the advantage of both.

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CARBON PROJECTS SUPPORTING REDD+ <em>IDENTIFYING AND OPTIMIZING SYNERGIES</em>

CARBON PROJECTS SUPPORTING REDD+ IDENTIFYING AND OPTIMIZING SYNERGIES

Jelmer Hoogzaad, Charlie Parker, Franziska Haupt, Janis Hoberg - June 2014

KfW commissioned Climate Focus to analyse the synergies between reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and carbon projects. REDD+ accounts for emissions reductions from a specific location from within a forest while carbon projects aim to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. Examples of the latter are energy efficiency or fuel switch projects but the study lists more project types that achieve REDD+ outcomes.

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STRATEGIES FOR MITIGATING CLIMATE CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE <em>RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHILANTHROPY</em>

STRATEGIES FOR MITIGATING CLIMATE CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHILANTHROPY

Amy Dickie, Charlotte Streck, Stephanie Roe, Monika Zurek, Franziska Haupt and Alex Dolginow - April 2014

Climate Focus and California Environmental Associates present their report published in April 2014 Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change in Agriculture: Recommendations for Philanthropy, commissioned by the Climate and Land Use Alliance.

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THE LAND-USE SECTOR WITHIN THE POST-2020 CLIMATE REGIME

THE LAND-USE SECTOR WITHIN THE POST-2020 CLIMATE REGIME

Charlie Parker, Eduard Merger, Charlotte Streck, Darragh Conway, Timm Tennigkeit and Andreas Wilkes - April 2014

The land-use sector serves key environmental and social functions and supports the livelihoods of around half of the world's population. Despite its importance, however, the climate regime fails to formulate a coherent vision or set of incentives for mitigation and adaptation from the sector.

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LINKING FLEGT AND REDD+ TO IMPROVE FOREST GOVERNANCE

LINKING FLEGT AND REDD+ TO IMPROVE FOREST GOVERNANCE

Darragh Conway, Luke Pritchard, Charlotte Streck, and Jeremy Broadhead - April 2014

The great potential for synergies between FLEGT and REDD+ has yet to be achieved in practice. This is the conclusion of the recently published ETFRN News "Linking FLEGT and REDD+ to Improve Forest Governance." The publication presents 22 viewpoints from around the world on linkages between FLEGT, REDD+ and other international forest management initiatives. Darragh Conway, Luke Pritchard, Charlotte Streck and Jeremy Broadhead co-authored the chapter titled "International experience with REDD+ and national forest funds."

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THE GLOBE FOREST LEGISLATION STUDY

THE GLOBE FOREST LEGISLATION STUDY

Ludovino Lopes (Brazil), Augustin Mpoyi (DRC), Laode Syarif (Indonesia), Julieta Lira and Andres Avila Akerberg (Mexico), John Costenbader and Darragh Conway, Climate Focus (Executive Summary and Indonesia) - February 2014

Many tropical forest countries are now ready to begin revising existing legislation and designing new laws and regulations to incorporate national plans to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).

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MRV of cycling <em>Measuring the carbon impact of bicycle policy and infrastructure</em>

MRV of cycling Measuring the carbon impact of bicycle policy and infrastructure

Jelmer Hoogzaad, Aaron Lee, Sandra Greiner - December 2013

Climate Focus makes a strong case for the allocation of international finance to promote the use of bicycles for urban transport. Cycling provides a solution to urgent issues like urban air quality, traffic congestion while also providing physical exercise and associated health benefits. An increasing number of municipalities in developing counties are recognizing the opportunity that cycling offers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while also improving the quality of life in cities.

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Climate Change and  Agriculture in LDCs

Climate Change and Agriculture in LDCs

Timm Tennigkeit, Andreas Wilkes, Charlie Parker and Fred Kossam - December 2013

Climate Change and Agriculture in LDCs,  the first paper of two papers produced by Climate Focus in collaboration with Unique with funding from the Climate and Development Knowledge Network, explore key issues for LDCs within the UNFCCC negotiations.

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REDD+ prospects in LDCs

REDD+ prospects in LDCs

Charlie Parker, Matthew Cranford, Stephanie Roe and Ugan Manandhar - December 2013

REDD+prospects in LDCs, the second of two papers produced by Climate Focus in collaboration with Unique with funding from the Climate and Development Knowledge Network, explores key issues for LDCs within the UNFCCC negotiations.

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STANDARDIZED BASELINE ASSESSMENT FOR RURAL OFF-GRID-ELECTRIFICATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

STANDARDIZED BASELINE ASSESSMENT FOR RURAL OFF-GRID-ELECTRIFICATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

Bamshad Houshyani, Jelmer Hoogzaad, and Adriaan Korthuis (Climate Focus) and Carlos Guerrero, Faith Nangabo, and Adriaan Tas (Carbon Africa) - November 2013

Two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa lives in scarcely populated rural areas without access to an electric grid. In many of these regions grid connections are prohibitively expensive. The development of decentralized energy generation facilities is often the most viable option to secure access to energy.

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ADDING TO THE REDD FINANCE TOOL BOX

ADDING TO THE REDD FINANCE TOOL BOX

Charlie Parker - November 2013

Charlie Parker contributes an article on REDD finance for the 10th Edition of the IETA Greenhouse Gas Market 2013 Publication.

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NAMAs and REDD+: <em>Relationship and Main Issues for Consideration – with a focus on Southeast Asia</em>

NAMAs and REDD+: Relationship and Main Issues for Consideration – with a focus on Southeast Asia

John Costenbader, Luke Pritchard, Hilda Galt, Stephanie Roe, Lauren Stanley - November 2013

Climate Focus is pleased to announce the release of its publication “NAMAs and REDD+: Relationship and main issues for consideration - with a focus on Southeast Asia” for the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (German Society for International Cooperation). Since 2007, REDD+ and NAMAs have developed quickly as new initiatives under the UN climate regime with significant potential for carbon emissions mitigation in forest, agriculture and other land use sectors in many developing countries. The study examines the two work streams both in the abstract and in the context of several Southeast Asian countries strategically important to land use carbon mitigation efforts. Emphasis is given to both clarifying the relationships of NAMAs and REDD+, and discussing how they may be harmonized so as to not allow for gaps or double counting of emissions reductions. The report includes country studies on Indonesia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Philippines and Thailand, as well as recommended options for the focus countries and potentially other developing countries. For the project, the team collaborated closely with GIZ staff from both the “REDD+ Working Group” of the GIZ Sector Network on Rural Development and Management of Natural Resources (SNRD)Asia, and the “NAMAs and Market Mechanisms Working Group” of the Sector Network Transport, Environment, Energy, Water (TUEWAS) Asia.

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Safeguards for REDD+ from a Donor Perspective

Safeguards for REDD+ from a Donor Perspective

Florence Daviet, Gaia Larsen, Donna Lee, Stephanie Roe, Robert O'Sullivan, Charlotte Streck - November 2013

This paper was developed to provide a conceptual framing on the application of safeguards for transactions providing financial support for REDD+ actions. It seeks to provide an overview on the different safeguard approaches that bilateral donors currently apply, their applicability to various financing modalities, their legal status and scope, their relevance in the funding cycle, as well as other areas potentially worthy of further study.

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Climate Policy Special Issue <em>The Changing Geopolitics of Climate Change</em>

Climate Policy Special Issue The Changing Geopolitics of Climate Change

Charlotte Streck, co-editor - October 2013

This volume brings together the analytic brain of scholars and the keen eye of practitioners; it ranges from describing the special position of BRIC countries over the role of national policies in international climate policy, the role of climate finance, a re-assessment of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, to a review of climate policy in the light of geopolitical developments. It features a commentary by Christina Figueres and former UK ambassador Sir Tony Brenton each.

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International experience with REDD+ and national forest funds

International experience with REDD+ and national forest funds

LEAF - September 2013

Vietnam is quickly advancing with REDD+ implementation and expects to be among the first Asian countries to receive results-based payments. In this context, a 2012 decision of the Prime Minister provides for establishing a REDD+ Fund under the Vietnam Forest Protection and Development Fund (VNFF) and the Vietnam Forestry Administration (VNFOREST) has directed relevant agencies to prepare a proposal for such a fund for submission to the Government for approval in 2013. 

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:  EL ROL DE LOS BOSQUES EN LOS FUTUROS ACUERDOS SOBRE CAMBIO CLIMATICO  <em>The Role of Forests in a Future Climate Change Agreement</em>

: EL ROL DE LOS BOSQUES EN LOS FUTUROS ACUERDOS SOBRE CAMBIO CLIMATICO The Role of Forests in a Future Climate Change Agreement

Donna Lee - July 2013

Donna Lee, independent consultant and Senior Advisor for Climate Focus, examines the possible role of REDD+ in the elaboration of a new climate change agreement or arrangement under the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. 

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Addressing Agricultural Drivers of Deforestation <em>Opportunities for Catalytic Donor Interventions</em>

Addressing Agricultural Drivers of Deforestation Opportunities for Catalytic Donor Interventions

Charlotte Streck and Monika Zurek - July 2013

The objective of this paper is to review strategies on how to counter agricultural drivers of deforestation and develop recommendations on how international donors can support such strategies.

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DECISION SUPPORT TOOL <em>Integrated REDD+ accounting frameworks: Nested national approaches</em>

DECISION SUPPORT TOOL Integrated REDD+ accounting frameworks: Nested national approaches

Jeremy Broadhead, Robert O’Sullivan, John Costenbader, Luke Pritchard, Darragh Conway - May 2013

This Decision Tool aims to guide countries on the design and establishment of national-level REDD+ accounting frameworks with emphasis on the integration of subnational and project-level REDD+ activities into the national framework.

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Safeguards in REDD+ and Forest Carbon Standards: <em>A Review of Social, Environmental and Procedural Concepts and Applications</em>

Safeguards in REDD+ and Forest Carbon Standards: A Review of Social, Environmental and Procedural Concepts and Applications

Stephanie Roe, Charlotte Streck, Luke Pritchard, John Costenbader - May 2013

This paper is the third report in a series of analytical papers that compare main design features of forest carbon standards and REDD+ initiatives. It presents a comparative analysis of social and environmental safeguard standards, their substantive and procedural components, and issues from developing country, donor country and private sector perspectives.

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Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin: Reconciling Economic Growth and Forest Protection

Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin: Reconciling Economic Growth and Forest Protection

Carole Megevand with Aline Mosnier, Joël Hourticq, Klas Sanders, Nina Doetinchem, and Charlotte Streck - March 2013

The Congo Basin forests have been mainly “passively” protected by chronic political instability and conflict, poor infrastructure, and poor governance. Congo Basin countries thus still fit the profile of high forest cover/ low deforestation (HFLD) countries. However, there are signs that Congo Basin forests are under increasing pressure from a variety of sources, including mineral extraction, road development, agribusiness, and biofuels, in addition to subsistence agricultural expansion and charcoal collection.

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Reference Levels: Concepts, Functions, and Application in REDD+ and Forest Carbon Standards

Reference Levels: Concepts, Functions, and Application in REDD+ and Forest Carbon Standards

Thiago Chagas, John Costenbader, Charlotte Streck, Stephanie Roe - January 2013

This paper is the second in an evolving series surveying forest carbon standards for their insight relevant to results-based payments for REDD+. The objective of this paper is to assess how different results-based initiatives deal with common Reference Level (RL) design problems in order to inform REDD+ negotiations and policy makers. It is also intended to serve as a reference for a consolidated overview of options for constructing RLs, and enhance understanding of how their different forms and function will impact the overall design of REDD+ mechanisms.

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Standards for Results-Based REDD+ Finance <em>Overview and Design Parameters</em>

Standards for Results-Based REDD+ Finance Overview and Design Parameters

Charlotte Streck and John Costenbader - November 2012

The objective of this paper, the first in a series of analytical papers to evaluate the design features of various results-based standards, protocols and methodologies, is to give an initial overview of existing and emerging REDD+ frameworks for results-based finance. The paper summarizes the most important standards that channel results-based payments to REDD+. This introduction into REDD+ standards sets out to identify central commonalities and differences so that stakeholders may promote rapid learning for REDD+ and implement no-regrets REDD+ activities.

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Understanding the Relationship between Biodiversity, Carbon, Forests and People: The Key to Achieving REDD+ objectives

Understanding the Relationship between Biodiversity, Carbon, Forests and People: The Key to Achieving REDD+ objectives

- November 2012

Charlotte Streck contributed as lead author to Chapter 5 of the Global Assessment on Biodiversity, Forest Management, and REDD+ which will officially be launched at Forest Day 6 in Doha, Qatar, in December 2012. The report is a comprehensive scientific assessment about the linkages between biodiversity and potential REDD+ activities in the context of sustainable forest management practices.  The assessment report aims to provide policy makers, investors and donors with a stronger scientific basis for their decisions about REDD+ policies and projects. 

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REDD+ in Vietnam <em>Integrating National and Subnational Approaches</em>

REDD+ in Vietnam Integrating National and Subnational Approaches

Phuc Xuan To, Robert O'Sullivan, Jacob Olander, Slayde Hawkins, Pham Quoc Hung, Noriyoshi Kitamura - Forest Trends, Climate Focus, Vietnam Administration of Forestry, Japan International Cooperation Agency - September 2012

There is a general consensus in the UNFCCC and the international REDD+ community that emission reductions and removals must ultimately be accounted for at the national level. “Nested” approaches to REDD+ have been discussed widely in this context, whereby projects and/or subnational programs are integrated into higher-level accounting in order to provide a coherent picture of countries’ progress in reducing emissions. This report, which was funded by NORAD, USAID, JICA and DFID, provides background information and advice to the Government of Vietnam and stakeholders in Vietnam on how to integrate national and subnational approaches to REDD+ in Vietnam.  To learn more about REDD+ in Vietnam, check out the Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) program.

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Innovativeness and Paralysis in International Climate Policy

Innovativeness and Paralysis in International Climate Policy

Charlotte Streck - August 2012

This article describes the challenges of using the constrained tools of international law to negotiate a sustainable framework to address climate change. It sets out to show how the particularities of the problem have led to creative and innovative solutions expanding the borders of international law. To this end, the article discusses carbon market mechanisms, the compliance regime of the Kyoto Protocol, and the emerging framework to create incentives to reduce land-based emissions in developing countries. These examples illustrate that the recognition of the role of sub-national and private entities in mitigating climate change has had significant impact on the rules of the climate regime. But the article also asserts that the un process, while recognizing the role of private actors, is still inadequately equipped to involve non-state actors in a meaningful way. The climate regime therefore challenges the traditional thinking about interstate relationships. No longer solely a matter for international environmental law, contemporary environmental governance has become a global affair, which makes the lens of transnational law a useful tool to think about these issues in practice in a more intellectually fruitful and relevant way. This article thereby provides a snapshot of the type of issues and discussion that readers of this journal can look forward to in the years to come.

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Handbook to standardised eligibility criteria for frequent types of Programmes of Activities   <em>Part I: Background and Analysis Part II: Blueprint Texts</em>

Handbook to standardised eligibility criteria for frequent types of Programmes of Activities Part I: Background and Analysis Part II: Blueprint Texts

Jelmer Hoogzaad, Bamshad Houshyani, Szymon Mikolajczyk, Hilda Galt - May 2012

New PoA tools available on eligibility criteria and management systems

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CME Starter Kit <em>A manual for management systems at coordinating/managment entities (CMEs) </em>

CME Starter Kit A manual for management systems at coordinating/managment entities (CMEs)

Robert Dornau, Simon Dawes, Sandra Greiner,Bamshad Houshyani, Juan Pablo Castro, Adriaan Korthuis - May 2012

The “CME Starter Kit” which Climate Focus elaborated together with Carbonflow provides  assistance to CMEs in the installation of effective management systems. As the backbone of the PoA approach is the aggregation of similar emission reduction activities under one single umbrella structure, it is challenging but crucial that the CME in charge of a PoA assures that all individual measures are implemented successfully and in line with the CDM requirements. The Starter Kit comes with a number of directly useable Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and forms which CMEs can draw on in the elaboration of their own management system manual.  

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Peatlands - guidance for climate change mitigation by conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use

Peatlands - guidance for climate change mitigation by conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use

Hans Joosten, Marja-Liisa Tapio-Biström & Susanna Tol (eds.) - May 2012

Peatlands provide many important ecosystem services, including water regulation, biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration and storage. Because of the enormous size of the peat carbon pool, its high sensitivity for disturbance, the large emissions from a small land area (which continue long after conversion), and the virtual irreversibility of peat carbon losses, any further degradation of the peatland resource should be prevented. Peatland conservation, restoration and water management are low-hanging fruits for climate finance mitigation and climate-smart agriculture (CSA).

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Struggling With Expectations and Changing Realities: International Climate Negotiations

Struggling With Expectations and Changing Realities: International Climate Negotiations

Charlotte Streck - April 2012

Although the UNFCCC sets a direction and defines a number of tools and mechanisms, it does not provide any clear strategy on how to solve the climate crisis.  International climate negotiations do nor formulate policies.  Instead, they leave the international process up to national governments to decide on how to reduce emissions.  International goals and pledges may provide policy makers with a direction, but they do not formulate recipes on how to generate energy and feed an increasing world population while protecting the global climate.  The challenge is formidable, and time is running out.  By the same token, climate finance and the institutional arrangements underpinning it are likely to remain decentralized and diverse.  Although fragmenatation poses the risk of inefficiencies and duplication of efforts, recent developments under the UNFCCC carry the promise that climate negotiations are able to adapt to changing realities and may provide a framework for country-driven and multistakeholder-driven climate policies.

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Options for financing REDD+ in the context of EU climate policy <em>Status and opportunities </em>

Options for financing REDD+ in the context of EU climate policy Status and opportunities

Moritz von Unger, Charlotte Streck and Donna Lee - February 2012

Climate Focus, with the support of The Nature Conservancy, has evaluated options on how to mobilize funding to support REDD+ in the context of EU climate policy. The analysis focuses on mobilizing sustained support for emission reductions and removals from REDD+ that would complement the funding of readiness activities, forest governance programs and other direct policy support.

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Towards Policies for Climate Change Mitigation: Incentives and Benefits for Smallholder Farmers

Towards Policies for Climate Change Mitigation: Incentives and Benefits for Smallholder Farmers

Charlotte Streck, David Burns and Leticia Guimaraes - February 2012

The potential to sequester carbon in soils, enhance aboveground biomass and reduce non-carbon dioxide emissions creates an opportunity for the agricultural sector to benefit from mitigation finance. Smallholders can tap into this opportunity provided that adoption barriers can be successfully addressed.

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Voorjaarsschoonmaak in het natuurbeschermingsrecht: minder geld, minder regels, minder bescherming <em>Spring cleaning in nature conservation legislation: less money, less rules, less protection</em>

Voorjaarsschoonmaak in het natuurbeschermingsrecht: minder geld, minder regels, minder bescherming Spring cleaning in nature conservation legislation: less money, less rules, less protection

Ernestine Meijer and Wienke Zwier - February 2012

Ernestine Meijer of Climate Focus, together with Wienke Zwier of the Dutch law firm AKD,  published the article "Voorjaarsschoonmaak in het natuurbeschermingsrecht: minder geld, minder regels, minder bescherming" (translation: Spring cleaning in nature conservation legislation: less money, less rules, less protection) in the March issue of the Dutch Law Journal “Tijdschrift voor Milieu en Recht”.

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REDD+ and Agricultural Supply Chains

REDD+ and Agricultural Supply Chains

Charlotte Streck and Leticia Guimaraes - January 2012

Agriculture is the main driver of deforestation in many countries and therefore is intrinsically connected to REDD+. Public-private partnerships in and around supply chains can generate emission reductions from REDD+ while also helping developing countries improve the sustainability of their agricultural sectors. This Climate Focus study suggests that if these companies commit to making their supply chains more sustainable, they can lead a change in behavior faster than change led by end consumers. In other words, if these key companies change, others are likely to follow.

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Maximizing the Co-benefits of REDD-Plus Actions <em>Discussion paper for a Regional Expert Workshop supported by the German International Climate Initiative, September 27-29 2011, Subic, Philippines</em>

Maximizing the Co-benefits of REDD-Plus Actions Discussion paper for a Regional Expert Workshop supported by the German International Climate Initiative, September 27-29 2011, Subic, Philippines

Donna Lee, Jörg Seifert-Granzin, Till Neeff, Daniela Göhler, Bernd-Markus Liss and Anika Busch - December 2011

Since UNFCCC COP-16 in Cancún, promoting co-benefits and safeguards of REDD+ are high on the international climate change agenda. Parties have been requested to share their views on guidance for systems that provide information on how safeguards are addressed and respected, including characteristics, design, provision of information, and potential barriers. By October 2011, 38 countries plus the EU and its member states submitted their views to the UNFCCC secretariat.

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Guidelines for REDD+ Reference Levels <em>Principles and Recommendations </em>

Guidelines for REDD+ Reference Levels Principles and Recommendations

Arild Angelsen, Doug Boucher, Sandra Brown, Valerie Merckx, Charlotte Streck and Daniel Zarin - November 2011

This report on guidelines for the preparation of REDD+ Reference Levels aims at informing the preparation of RLs by developing-country Parties to the UNFCCC. The assessment was conducted in a similar fashion to the REDD-OAR and REDD+ IOA, that is, through systematic analysis and assessment completed by a diverse and independent group of experts and a facilitated dialogue among UNFCCC negotiators, experts, and other stakeholders.

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Towards Building a Governance Framework for REDD+ Financing

Towards Building a Governance Framework for REDD+ Financing

Leticia Guimaraes, Anna Lehmann and Robert O’Sullivan - November 2011

Climate Focus through the USAID-funded LEAF project has contributed a background paper on REDD+ finance for a REDD+ stakeholder consultation workshop in Panama on 2 October, 2011, sponsored by CMIA, the Ateneo School for Government, and the Swiss development cooperation Helvetas.

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Developments in Climate Finance from Rio to Cancun

Developments in Climate Finance from Rio to Cancun

Charlotte Streck and Thiago Chagas - October 2011

Charlotte Streck and Thiago Chagas contributed a paper to the World Bank Legal Review, Volume 3, entitled "International Financial Institutions and Global Legal Governance". The paper gives a general introduction of the development of climate finance in the context of the UNFCCCC.

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Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Developing Countries <em>Emerging opportunities for private sector engagement</em>

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Developing Countries Emerging opportunities for private sector engagement

Charlotte Streck, Leticia Guimaraes - September 2011

On behalf of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Climate Focus has summarized the current debate on nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) of developing countries and their relevance for international and local businesses.

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Modalities for REDD+ Reference Levels <em>Technical and Procedural Issues</em>

Modalities for REDD+ Reference Levels Technical and Procedural Issues

Arild Angelsen, Doug Boucher, Sandra Brown, Valerie Merckx, Charlotte Streck, Daniel Zarin - August 2011

Looking toward the 17th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP) in Durban, South Africa, the Government of Norway commissioned Meridian Institute to undertake a new options assessment effort focusing on modalities for REDD+ reference levels. This project follows on two previous Norway-sponsored activities (REDD-OAR and REDD+ IOA).

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Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Developing Countries: A Perspective on Barriers to Deployment

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Developing Countries: A Perspective on Barriers to Deployment

Natalia Kulichenko and Eleanor Ereira (The World Bank Group) - August 2011

This World Bank report assesses some of the most important barriers facing CCS deployment within the context of developing and transition economies. Climate Focus in collaboration with Carbon Counts provided a background paper which formed the basis of chapter 5.

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Agriculture and Climate Change: A Scoping Report

Agriculture and Climate Change: A Scoping Report

Bruce Campbell, Wendy Mann, Ricardo Meléndez‐Ortiz, Charlotte Streck, Timm Tennigkeit - July 2011

The report is the result of a project facilitated by the Meridian Institute which began in August 2010.  It is intended to provide context and analysis for addressing agriculture in international climate negotiations, discussing issues such as agricultural production and food security; early action opportunities; trade; finance; technology transfer and capacity building; and performance and benefits measurement.

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National REDD+ Registries - an overview of issues and design options

National REDD+ Registries - an overview of issues and design options

Robert O'Sullivan, Thiago Chagas, Charlotte Streck, Joanna Silver and Jane Lloyd - June 2011

The National REDD+ Registries Report was commissioned by kfW Bankengruppe, on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, and was prepared in collaboration with Markit.

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Blue Carbon Policy Options Assessment

Blue Carbon Policy Options Assessment

- June 2011

Mangroves, salt marshes, and sea grasses store significant amounts of carbon and have great greenhouse gas mitigation potential. To date these ecosystems – known as “blue carbon” - have largely fallen outside of international and national climate change mitigation policies.  This report was commissioned by the Linden Trust for Conservation to assess options for protecting and/or restoring blue carbon ecosystems under climate change policy and financing mechanisms. 

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Carbon Market and climate Finance for Agriculture in Developing Countries

Carbon Market and climate Finance for Agriculture in Developing Countries

Climate Focus, UNIQUE and IIASA - June 2011

The attached study by Climate Focus, UNIQUE and IIASA assesses the value and effectiveness of carbon market and climate finance strategies to enhance agricultural investment and food security in developing countries, particularly for smallholders, while reducing GHG emissions. The assessment has been commissioned by the UK Department for International Development to inform recommendations to implement these strategies through national development policies or international agreements and cooperation.

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The Handbook for Programmes of Activities: practical guidance to successful implementation

The Handbook for Programmes of Activities: practical guidance to successful implementation

- May 2011

Climate Focus presents the Handbook for Programmes of Activities: a  comprehensive publication that assists PoA practitioners with practical and organizational aspects of PoA development. PoA practitioners all over the world face similar challenges on setting-up, organizing and implementing a PoA.The Handbook for Programmes of Activities brings together the experience of the pioneers in the carbon market and provides hands-on guidance on how to deal with the crucial aspects and operation of a PoA.

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Funding for forests: UK Government support for REDD+

Funding for forests: UK Government support for REDD+

PwC, Climate Focus, Winrock, IUCN - May 2011

PwC, Climate Focus, Winrock and IUCN, have released a study commissioned by the UK government that assesses the options for how the UK can best support developing nations to reduce deforestation. The study evaluates the effectiveness and absorptive capacity of existing REDD+ multilateral funds and programmes; analyzes ways in which the UK Government could undertake REDD+ activities through new bilateral agreements with forested nations; outlines the geographies within which the UK Government may wish to consider partnerships, examining the benefits and risks of doing so; and looks at ways in which the Government could catalyse private sector innovation and investment in REDD+.

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Towards an Energizing Partnership? <em>Exploring China's role as catalyst of renewable energy development in Africa</em>

Towards an Energizing Partnership? Exploring China's role as catalyst of renewable energy development in Africa

Björn Conrad, Bamshad Houshyani, Mercedes Fernandez - May 2011

China is becoming a major investor in the renewable energy sector in Africa. Climate Focus and GPPi have prepared a study that assesses the potential benefits and challenges related to an increasing Chinese involvement in Africa's renewable energy sector.

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Creation and Evolution of Adaptation Funds

Creation and Evolution of Adaptation Funds

Robert O’Sullivan (lead author), Eszter Szocs, Charlotte Streck, Ernestine Meijer and Carina Bracer - April 2011

The report “Creation and Evolution of Adaptation Funds”, commissioned by WWF, explores the history and evolution of the four largest existing adaptation funds, the Adaptation Fund (AF), Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR). The report also analyses the funds with particular focus on organizational and financing effectiveness, efficiency and equity as well as additionality, appropriateness and predictability of finance and procedural and distributive justice. The report contains four Annexes with detailed data and information on the four funds.

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Carbon offsetting in Europe post2012: Kyoto Protocol, EU ETS, and effort sharing

Carbon offsetting in Europe post2012: Kyoto Protocol, EU ETS, and effort sharing

Moritz von Unger, Darragh Conway, Jelmer Hoogzaad - March 2011

The difficulties faced by international negotiations in finalizing an agreed framework for post-2012 international greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulation have left the rules relating to carbon offsetting, in general, and Joint Implementation (JI), in particular, in limbo. In a study commissioned by KfW on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety under the ongoing CDM/JI Initiative, Climate Focus provides an analysis of the regulatory situation post 2012 for JI and offsetting in and for the European Union.

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Consolidating National REDD+ Accounting and Subnational Activities <em>Applications in Ghana</em>

Consolidating National REDD+ Accounting and Subnational Activities Applications in Ghana

Thiago Chagas, Robert O’Sullivan, Carina Bracer and Charlotte Streck - November 2010

This assessment analyzes options for integrating subnational REDD+ activities into the design of the national REDD+ architecture in Ghana in a way that is consistent with the emerging international REDD+ policy, and its emerging REDD+ priorities. 

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Engaging the Private Sector in the Potential Generation of REDD+ Carbon Credits <em>An Analysis of Issues</em>

Engaging the Private Sector in the Potential Generation of REDD+ Carbon Credits An Analysis of Issues

Robert O’Sullivan, Charlotte Streck, Timothy Pearson, Sandra Brown and Alyssa Gilbert - August 2010

Climate Focus led a team of experts to analyze opportunities for involving the private sector in the generation of REDD+ credits for the UK Department for International Development (DFID).

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The new promise of agriculture

The new promise of agriculture

Michael Coren - July 2010

Although contributing 14% of the world’s GHG emissions, agriculture has been largely neglected until now. Michael Coren looks at the future of the agricultural sector and climate change in an editorial for the Katoomba Group. With synergies between mitigation and adaptation within reach, agriculture’s time has finally come.

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Vietnam at the forefront of reducing C02

Vietnam at the forefront of reducing C02

Charlotte Streck - June 2010

VietNamNet Bridge published Charlotte Streck’s article about Vietnam’s role in REDD+ on occasion of a Hanoi Conference on Payment for Ecosystem Services from REDD. The article discusses Vietnam’s active involvement in REDD+ related activities over the past 20 years, signaling how it serves as a model for the ‘plus’ component of REDD+, and can further develop its policies and programs.

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Policy Impacts on Deforestation: Lessons Learned from Past Experiences to Inform New Initiatives

Policy Impacts on Deforestation: Lessons Learned from Past Experiences to Inform New Initiatives

Alexander Pfaff, Erin O. Sills, Gregory S. Amacher, Michael J. Coren, Kathleen Lawlor, Charlotte Streck - June 2010

Climate Focus authors Michael J. Coren and Charlotte Streck wrote about international REDD+ policies in the recent Policy Impacts on Deforestation:  Lessons Learned from Past Experiences to Inform New Initiatives published by Duke University in June 2010. This comprehensive study looks at interventions and policies to reduce emissions and increase forestry carbon stocks. You can download the publication here or view the whole "International Forest Carbon and Climate Policy" Series here.

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The building trade in China

The building trade in China

Karla Lieberg, Sandra Greiner and Adriaan Korthuis - March 2010

China is exploring carbon emissions trading as an instrument to boost energy efficiency in buildings.

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Option Review for Kazakhstan to Participate in the International Carbon Market

Option Review for Kazakhstan to Participate in the International Carbon Market

Climate Focus - January 2010

This report explores the options open to the Kazakh Government and the country’s private sector to engage in carbon finance activities as soon as possible, taking into account the legal, institutional and economic aspects. The prospective timeframe analyzed includes both the Kyoto Protocol (the Protocol) commitment period until and including 2012 and the time thereafter. To this end, the report describes the basic division of Annex I country versus developing country Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Convention), and Kazakhstan’s various interventions at the international level to position itself in between this strict divide in the Convention and then in the Protocol.

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Обзор вариантов для участия Казахстана нk

Обзор вариантов для участия Казахстана нk

Climate Focus - January 2010

В данном отчете рассматриваются варианты, которые открыты для Правительства

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REDD Reference Levels and Drivers of Deforestation in Congo Basin Countries

REDD Reference Levels and Drivers of Deforestation in Congo Basin Countries

by Carole Megevand, Anne Martinet and Charlotte Streck - November 2009

World Bank technical note authored by Carole Megevand (World Bank), Anne Martinet (ONFi) and Charlotte Streck on options for setting REDD+ reference levels for the countries of the Congo Basin. The note has been developed in the context of a local workshop hosted by COMIFAC and the Government of Cameroon that took place in Douala from the 16-18 November 2009.

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Financing Options for REDD+

Financing Options for REDD+

Charlotte Streck - September 2009

Upon request of the countries of the Central African Commission on Forests (COMIFAC), Climate Focus prepared a document analyzing various REDD financing options, with a particular emphasis on the implications of market and fund based approaches. The document was presented as the ministerial meeting of the COMIFAC that took place in Kinshasa on the 15/16 September 2009.

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Developing Effective National REDD Programmes; REDD and NAMAs

Developing Effective National REDD Programmes; REDD and NAMAs

- August 2009

The report analyses the REDD and NAMA negotiations and linkages between the two, including the pros and cons of including REDD as a NAMA.

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Enhanced Financial Mechanisms for Post 2012 Mitigation

Enhanced Financial Mechanisms for Post 2012 Mitigation

Christiana Figueres and Charlotte Streck - July 2009

Despite the many calls to reform the CDM, its conceptual underpinnings are strong and it will most

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Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation <em>An Options Assessment Report</em>

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation An Options Assessment Report

by Angelsen, A., Brown, S.,Loisel, C., Peskett, L., Streck, C., & Zarin, D . - March 2009

In a special report commissioned by the Government of Norway released March 16th 2009 Climate Focus’ Charlotte Streck contributed to the structuring of financial mechanisms that frame a flexible, global approach to providing adequate incentives to REDD policies and greenhouse gas reductions from the forest sector.

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New Mechanisms for Financing Mitigation Transforming economies sector by sector (March 2009)

New Mechanisms for Financing Mitigation Transforming economies sector by sector (March 2009)

by David Reed, Pablo Gutman, Kim Carstensen - March 2009

New Mechanisms for Financing Mitigation Transforming economies sector by sector (March 2009) , by David Reed, Pablo Gutman, Kim Carstensen. WWF discussion paper. Climate Focus provided several background papers to the WWF team.

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Seminar Proceedings ASEAN High Level Seminar Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation <em>Towards a Cross-sectoral Programme Approach in ASEAN</em>

Seminar Proceedings ASEAN High Level Seminar Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Towards a Cross-sectoral Programme Approach in ASEAN

Prepared on behalf of GTZ, Hertie School of Governance, The (German) Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, The Australian Government/AusAID, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy - January 2009

Seminar Proceedings ASEAN High Level Seminar Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: Towards a Cross-sectoral Programme Approach in ASEAN (2009). Prepared on behalf of GTZ, Hertie School of Governance, The (German) Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, The Australian Government/AusAID, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy.

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Review: Climate Change and Forests: emerging policy and market opportunitie

Review: Climate Change and Forests: emerging policy and market opportunitie

by Pleininger, T. Ecological Economics - May 2008

Review (2008) of Climate Change and Forests: emerging policy and market opportunitie by Pleininger, T. Ecological Economics.

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The Role of Sector No-Lose Targets in Scaling up Finance for Climate Change Mitigation Activities in Developing Countries

The Role of Sector No-Lose Targets in Scaling up Finance for Climate Change Mitigation Activities in Developing Countries

Murray Ward - May 2008

The Role of Sector No-Lose Targets in Scaling up Finance for Climate Change Mitigation Activities in Developing Countries by Murray Ward (ed.) Prepared for DEFRA.

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Impact Assessment on LULUCF and Forest-Based Carbon Credits: A Response to DG Environment’s Staff Working Document

Impact Assessment on LULUCF and Forest-Based Carbon Credits: A Response to DG Environment’s Staff Working Document

by Climate Focus, Terra Carbon, Sustainable Forest Management, Ecosecurities and the Carbon Market Association - January 2008

Impact Assessment on LULUCF and Forest-Based Carbon Credits: A Response to DG Environment’s Staff Working Document (2008) by Climate Focus, Terra Carbon, Sustainable Forest Management, Ecosecurities and the Carbon Market Association. A paper that rebuts concerns expressed by the EU Commission with respect to CDM forestry projects.

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The hidden value of Bali <em>Why saving the world's rainforests is good for the climate and the US economy</em>

The hidden value of Bali Why saving the world's rainforests is good for the climate and the US economy

by J. Horowitz and R. O’Sullivan - January 2008

The hidden value of Bali: Why saving the world's rainforests is good for the climate and the US economy (2008) by J. Horowitz and R. O’Sullivan, published by Mongabay.com. The article is also available on the EcosystemMarketplace website under the title "Analysis: Why saving the world's rainforests is good for the climate and the US economy."

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Trading Secondary CERs from Hydropower Projects above 20MW

Trading Secondary CERs from Hydropower Projects above 20MW

Climate Focus’ Legal Team - January 2008

Trading Secondary CERs from Hydropower Projects above 20MW (2008), by Climate Focus’ Legal Team. Climate Focus has developed a memorandum that examines the issue of recognizing CERs from hydropower projects above 20MW (“Hydro CERs”) in the EU. Hydro CERs, at present, are mutually recognized and thus freely tradable on the EU ETS.

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Climate Change and Forestry: A Complicated Relationship

Climate Change and Forestry: A Complicated Relationship

Charlotte Streck - October 2007

Featured in the IUCN/WWF publication ArborVitae in 2007, this article presents arguments in support of a greater role for land-use related emissions and removals within any attempt to stabilize atmospheric GHG concentrations.  It discusses some of the factors complicating the inclusion of AFOLU solutions in the Kyoto regime, and other options such as non-market based approaches.

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A Carbon Stock Approach to Creating a Positive Incentive to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries

A Carbon Stock Approach to Creating a Positive Incentive to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries

Steve Prior, Robert O'Sullivan, and Charlotte Streck - February 2007

A Carbon Stock Approach to Creating a Positive Incentive to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (2007), Steve Prior, Robert O'Sullivan, and Charlotte Streck, submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat, 23 February 2007.

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ViewPoint: LULUCF projects under JI: Will they be impossible?

ViewPoint: LULUCF projects under JI: Will they be impossible?

by Robert O’Sullivan and Bernhard Schlamadinger - January 2007

ViewPoint: LULUCF projects under JI: Will they be impossible?, by Robert O’Sullivan and Bernhard Schlamadinger, published in PointCarbon; CDM & JI monitor, January 24, 2007.

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Protecting forests to mitigate global climate change

Protecting forests to mitigate global climate change

Charlotte Streck - January 2007

Protecting forests to mitigate global climate change, (in press) paper prepared for a DFID brainstorming session on ‘Illegal logging and associated trade: exploring future options’, held on 24 January 2007, at Chatham House in London, published online.

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Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Ukraine

Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Ukraine

by Charlotte Streck, James Atkins, Jelmer Hoogzaad - May 2006

Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Ukraine (2006), by Charlotte Streck, James Atkins, Jelmer Hoogzaad and Yulia Pahshenko, The World Bank (unpublished report).

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Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Ukraine2

Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Ukraine2

by Charlotte Streck, James Atkins, Jelmer Hoogzaad and Yulia Pahshenko - May 2006

Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Ukraine (2006), by Charlotte Streck, James Atkins, Jelmer Hoogzaad and Yulia Pahshenko, The World Bank (unpublished report) - report 2.

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Submission to the call for input of the 23rd meeting CDM Executive Board on Additionality

Submission to the call for input of the 23rd meeting CDM Executive Board on Additionality

by Climate Focus - January 2006

Submission to the call for input of the 23rd meeting CDM Executive Board on Additionality (2006) by Climate Focus.

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Submission to the call for input of the JI Supervisory Committee  on the format of JI PDDs and the relevant PDD guidelines

Submission to the call for input of the JI Supervisory Committee on the format of JI PDDs and the relevant PDD guidelines

by Climate Focus - January 2006

Submission to the call for input of the JI Supervisory Committee on the format of JI PDDs and the relevant PDD guidelines (2006) by Climate Focus.

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Key technical issues relevant to CDM Forestry Projects

Key technical issues relevant to CDM Forestry Projects

by Charlotte Streck, Toby Janson-Smith, Joachim Schnurr (unpublished report). - January 2006

Key technical issues relevant to CDM Forestry Projects (2006), by Charlotte Streck, Toby Janson-Smith, Joachim Schnurr (unpublished report).

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Local and Global benefits of including LULUCF Credits in the EU ETS

Local and Global benefits of including LULUCF Credits in the EU ETS

by Robert O’Sullivan, Charlotte Streck, Toby Janson-Smith, Jonathan Haskett, Bernhard Schlamadinger and John O. Niles - January 2006

Local and Global benefits of including LULUCF Credits in the EU ETS (2006), by Robert O’Sullivan, Charlotte Streck, Toby Janson-Smith, Jonathan Haskett, Bernhard Schlamadinger and John O. Niles (unpublished report).

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Will Joint Implementation LULUCF projects be impossible in practice?

Will Joint Implementation LULUCF projects be impossible in practice?

by Bernhard Schlamadinger, Charlotte Streck, Robert O’Sullivan - January 2006

Will Joint Implementation LULUCF projects be impossible in practice? Open letter to the JI Supervisory Committee and the UNFCCC secretariat by Bernhard Schlamadinger, Charlotte Streck, Robert O’Sullivan.

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Response for the call for comments of the International Emission Trading Association and the Climate Group on the Voluntary Carbon Standards <em>by Climate Focus</em>

Response for the call for comments of the International Emission Trading Association and the Climate Group on the Voluntary Carbon Standards by Climate Focus

- January 2006

Response for the call for comments of the International Emission Trading Association and the Climate Group on the Voluntary Carbon Standards (2006) by Climate Focus.

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Small-Scale Afforestation and Reforestation Projects: <em>Simplified Modalities and Procedures</em>

Small-Scale Afforestation and Reforestation Projects: Simplified Modalities and Procedures

by Sandra Greiner and Sergio Jaurequi - February 2004

Small-Scale Afforestation and Reforestation Projects: Simplified Modalities and Procedures (2004), by Sandra Greiner and Sergio Jaurequi, World Bank Carbon Finance Business submission to UNFCCC, FCCC/WEB/2004/2.

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Contratos de Reducciones de Emisiones (ERs) provenientes de Proyectos de Manejo de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos

Contratos de Reducciones de Emisiones (ERs) provenientes de Proyectos de Manejo de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos

Charlotte Streck, Gabriel Blanco, Daniel Bouille, Osvaldo Girardin, Estella Santalla and Juan Rodrigo Walsh - January 2004

As part of a  project of technical assistance to the Argentinian Office of Clean Development Mechanism, and the Coordinación Ecológica del Área Metropolitana Sociedad del Estado (CEAMSE), this publication covers legal issues related to the recuperation of gases from landfill projects, different modalities used in contracts for these projects and aspects related to environmental aspects.

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Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Bulgaria

Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Bulgaria

- January 2004

Options for a Green Investment Scheme for Bulgaria (2004), by Charlotte Streck and Varadan Atur et al., The World Bank (unpublished report).

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Books, Handbooks and Edited Volumes

Handbook for Programme of Activities, 2nd Edition

Handbook for Programme of Activities, 2nd Edition

Climate Focus - April 2013

Climate Focus is pleased to announce the publication of the second edition of the Handbook for PoAs. Since the successful release of the first edition of the Handbook in 2011, over one hundred new PoAs have been registered under the CDM. As the PoA market evolves, so do the guidelines and standards applicable to their development. This comprehensive publication provides the most up-to-date CDM guidelines to PoA development, and features new chapters on developing voluntary PoAs under The Gold Standard as well as implementing PoAs in Africa.

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Analysing REDD+ <em>Challenges and choices</em>

Analysing REDD+ Challenges and choices

Edited by Arild Angelsen, Maria Brockhaus, William D. Sunderlin and Louis V. Verchot - June 2012

Charlotte Streck co-authored a chapter titled "Financing REDD+" for the newly published third book in a series of highly recognised REDD+ volumes from CIFOR. The book provides an analysis of actual REDD+ design and early implementation, based on a large research project – the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS), undertaken by CIFOR and partners. It takes stock of national, subnational and local REDD+ experiences, and identifies the political and practical challenges to designing and implementing effective, efficient and equitable REDD+ policies and projects. Key conclusions are:

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The Handbook for Programme of Activities in Africa: Practical Guidance to Succesful Implementation

The Handbook for Programme of Activities in Africa: Practical Guidance to Succesful Implementation

Climate Focus - July 2011

Climate Focus and the African Development Bank present the Handbook for Programmes of Activities in Africa. This updated version of Climate Focus’ previous publication includes a new chapter that focuses on the particularities of PoA development in Africa and presents the CDM’s struggle to take off across the continent. 

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The Handbook for Programmes of Activities - Spanish version

The Handbook for Programmes of Activities - Spanish version

Climate Focus - June 2011

Climate Focus presenta la versión en español de su reciente publicación: Manual de Programa de Actividades: Guía Práctica para una Implementación Exitosa. El Manual provee asistencia invaluable para actores interesados en el desarrollo de Programas de Actividades (PoA) ya que actualmente los desarrolladores de PoAs se ven confrontados con retos similares acerca de la puesta en marcha, la organización y la implementación de un PoA.

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Climate Change and Forests, Emerging Policy and Market Opportunities

Climate Change and Forests, Emerging Policy and Market Opportunities

Charlotte Streck, Robert O'Sullivan, Toby Janson-Smith and Richard G. Tarasofsky - May 2010

In this wide-ranging volume, international experts explain the links between climate change and forests, highlighting the potential role of this sector within emerging climate policy frameworks and carbon markets. After framing forestry activities within the larger context of climate-change policy, the contributors analyze the operation and efficacy of market-based mechanisms for forest conservation and climate change. Drawing on project examples from around the world, the authors present concrete recommendations for policymakers, project developers, and market participants. They discuss sequestration rights in Chile, carbon offset programs in Australia and New Zealand, and emerging policy incentives at all levels of the U.S. government. The book also explores the different voluntary schemes for carbon crediting, provides an overview of carbon accounting best practices, and presents tools for use in future sequestration and offset programs. It concludes by considering a range of incentive options for slowing deforestation and protecting the world’s remaining forests.

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UNEP Risoe announces forthcoming publication on carbon credit pricing

UNEP Risoe announces forthcoming publication on carbon credit pricing

- May 2010

UNEP Risoe announces forthcoming publication on carbon credit pricing. Carbon trading is expanding rapidly, with over 100 million credits from CDM projects sold to date. Market actors, particularly those engaged in CDM, need to be on top of new trends and price dynamics. This publication provides unique insights and in-depth analysis from traders, DNAs, legal advisers, investors, and CDM developers.

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Sustainable development and international law

Sustainable development and international law

Christina Voigt, reviewed by Thiago Chagas and Charlotte Streck - January 2010

Sustainable development and international law, Christina Voigt, reviewed by Thiago Chagas and Charlotte Streck, Climate Policy 10 (2010), p 120-122.

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Climate Finance - Regulatory and Funding Strategies for Climate Change and Global Development <em>Expectations and Reality of the Clean Development Mechanism</em>

Climate Finance - Regulatory and Funding Strategies for Climate Change and Global Development Expectations and Reality of the Clean Development Mechanism

chapter contribution by Charlotte Streck - December 2009

Within New York University's School of Law publication “Climate Finance - Regulatory and Funding Strategies for Climate Change and Global Development”, Charlotte Streck contributed a chapter discussing the strengths, weaknesses and future of the CDM entitled “Expectations and Reality of the Clean Development Mechanism: A Climate Finance Instrument between Accusation and Aspirations”. The entire book, or specific thematic sections, can be downloaded at www.climatefinance.org.

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Legal Aspects of Carbon Trading <em>Kyoto, Copenhagen and beyond</em>

Legal Aspects of Carbon Trading Kyoto, Copenhagen and beyond

Charlotte Streck, David Freestone - October 2009

Since 2005 the carbon market has grown to nearly $100 billion per annum. This new book examines all the main legal issues which are raised by this explosion of what is now called carbon finance. It covers not only the Kyoto Flexibility Mechanisms but also the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) that is in the process of reform and other national and voluntary schemes. The Parties to the 1992 UN Framework Convention are in the process of negotiating a successor regime to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol whose commitment period ends in 2012. As scientists predict that the threat of dangerous climate change requires much more radical mitigation actions, the negotiations aim for a more comprehensive and wide ranging agreement which includes new players - such as the US - as well as taking account of new sources (such as aircraft emissions) and new mechanisms such as Reducing Emissions through Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). This volume will cover the legal aspects of these.

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Review of the book “Corporate strategies and the Clean Development Mechanism: Developing Country Financing for Developed Country Commitments?

Review of the book “Corporate strategies and the Clean Development Mechanism: Developing Country Financing for Developed Country Commitments?

By Søren Ender Lütken and Axel Michaelowa; Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 2008”, reviewed by Sandra Greiner - January 2009

Review of the book “Corporate strategies and the Clean Development Mechanism: Developing Country Financing for Developed Country Commitments? By Søren Ender Lütken and Axel Michaelowa; Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 2008” (2009) reviewed by Sandra Greiner (2009), published in Climate Policy 9-6, pp. 681-683, doi:10.3763/cpol.2009.0666. To download the review please follow the link.

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Expectations and Reality of the Clean Development Mechanism A Climate Finance Instrument between Accusation and Aspirations

Expectations and Reality of the Clean Development Mechanism A Climate Finance Instrument between Accusation and Aspirations

by Charlotte Streck - January 2009

Expectations and Reality of the Clean Development Mechanism A Climate Finance Instrument between Accusation and Aspirations (2009) by Charlotte Streck. Chapter available for download.

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Moving Ahead with REDD <em>Issues, Options and Implications</em>

Moving Ahead with REDD Issues, Options and Implications

Erik Solheim, Robert O’Sullivan peer reviewed the book and Charlotte Streck contributed to two chapters - January 2008

The publication of a new book, Moving Ahead with REDD: Issues, Options and Implications was supported by the Norwegian government in order to facilitate progress of the unfccc negotiations on this important issue. Erik Solheim, Minister of Environment and International Development of Norway, described the value of “clarifying options associated with each issue- and their implications for effectiveness, efficiency and equity”. Robert O’Sullivan peer reviewed the book and Charlotte Streck contributed to two chapters: “What is the right scale for REDD” (Chap 4) and “How do we match country needs and financing sources” (Chap 5). The book was published by CIFOR and released at the cop in Poznan in December 2008. 

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Making Markets Work: A Review of CDM Performance and the Need for Reform

Making Markets Work: A Review of CDM Performance and the Need for Reform

by Charlotte Streck and Jolene Lin - January 2008

Making Markets Work: A Review of CDM Performance and the Need for Reform (2008) by Charlotte Streck and Jolene Lin, European Journal of International Law 2008, 19: 409-442.

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Carbon & Climate Law Review: A Journal of Climate Regulation and the Carbon Market

Carbon & Climate Law Review: A Journal of Climate Regulation and the Carbon Market

Journal's Editorial Board, including Charlotte Streck and David Freestone - July 2007

A Journal discussing climate policies around the globe, covering their conceptual design to the challenges of implementation. The Carbon & Climate Law Review brings together representatives from the legal discipline for the first time in one specialised journal, allowing them to engage in a dynamic debate on the law of climate change. Spanning practical and doctrinal focus, articles discuss ways in which legal professionals can help ensure smooth operation of the regulatory framework of the carbon markets. A section on current developments updates readers on the most recent events, trends, and political decisions. 

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Special Issue of the Environmental Liability Journal on the legal status of Carbon Finance and the Flexible Mechanisms

Special Issue of the Environmental Liability Journal on the legal status of Carbon Finance and the Flexible Mechanisms

edited by David Freestone and Charlotte Streck with contributions from Climate Focus team members - July 2007

Special Issue of the Environmental Liability Journal on the legal status of Carbon Finance and the Flexible Mechanisms, edited by David Freestone and Charlotte Streck with contributions from Climate Focus team members

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Snake Oil for the Mind: National Baselines for Reducing Deforestation

Snake Oil for the Mind: National Baselines for Reducing Deforestation

by Charlotte Streck - January 2007

Snake Oil for the Mind: National Baselines for Reducing Deforestation by Charlotte Streck (2007). Published by The Katoomba Group's Ecosystem Marketplace.

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Financial Instruments and Cooperation in Implementing International Agreements for the Global Environment

Financial Instruments and Cooperation in Implementing International Agreements for the Global Environment

Charlotte Streck - January 2006

Financial Instruments and Cooperation in Implementing International Agreements for the Global Environment (2006), by Charlotte Streck, published in Multilevel Governance of Global Environmental Change, Gerd Winder (ed.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.493-516.

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The role of forests in global climate change: whence we come and where we go

The role of forests in global climate change: whence we come and where we go

by Charlotte Streck and Sebastian Scholz, - January 2006

The role of forests in global climate change: whence we come and where we go (2006), by Charlotte Streck and Sebastian Scholz, published in International Affairs 82 (5), pp. 861-879, London.

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Implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism in China <em>Sustainable Development, Benefit Sharing and Ownership of Certified Emission Reductions</em>

Implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism in China Sustainable Development, Benefit Sharing and Ownership of Certified Emission Reductions

by Charlotte Streck and Xinjun Zhang - July 2005

Implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism in China: Sustainable Development, Benefit Sharing and Ownership of Certified Emission Reductions (in press), by Charlotte Streck and Xinjun Zhang, Yearbook of International Environmental Law 2005, Vol.16, Oxford University Press, London.

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Implementing the Kyoto Protocol: The European Emissions Trading Scheme (2005)

Implementing the Kyoto Protocol: The European Emissions Trading Scheme (2005)

by Charlotte Streck - June 2005

Implementing the Kyoto Protocol: The European Emissions Trading Scheme (2005), by Charlotte Streck, published in The International Environmental Law Committee Newsletter, publication of the International Environmental Law Committee of the Section of International Law, American Bar Association, Vol. 1 Issue 1, June 2005, Washington, D.C. To download the newsletter please follow the link.

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Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms: Making Kyoto Work

Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms: Making Kyoto Work

David Freestone and Charlotte Streck - May 2005

Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms: Making Kyoto Work (2005), by David Freestone and Charlotte Streck, Oxford University Press, London. Follow the link for table of contents. Or Buy the book from OUP .

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State Aid Issues in Climate Change Policy

State Aid Issues in Climate Change Policy

by Mercedes Fernandez, Eckard Rehbinder and Michael Bothe - May 2005

State Aid Issues in Climate Change Policy  (2005), by Mercedes Fernandez, Eckard Rehbinder and Michael Bothe, published in EEP Network: Developing legal and economic instruments to implement climate policy, Eleven Publishing House, Utrecht.

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Legal Ownership and Nature of Kyoto Units and EU Allowances

Legal Ownership and Nature of Kyoto Units and EU Allowances

Charlotte Streck and Matthieu Wemaere - May 2005

Legal Ownership and Nature of Kyoto Units and EU Allowances, by Charlotte Streck and Matthieu Wemaere, in: Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms (2005), Charlotte Streck with David Freestone (eds), Oxford University Press, London.

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Emissions Trading: Lessons From SOx and NOx Emissions Allowance and Credit Systems

Emissions Trading: Lessons From SOx and NOx Emissions Allowance and Credit Systems

by Charlotte Streck and Markus W. Gehring - April 2005

Emissions Trading: Lessons From SOx and NOx Emissions Allowance and Credit Systems Legal Nature, Title, Transfer, and Taxation of Emission Allowances and Credits (2005), by Charlotte Streck and Markus W. Gehring, published in Environmental Law Reporter 4, Washington, D.C.

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Clean Development Mechanism in China <em>Taking a Proactive and Sustainable Approach</em>

Clean Development Mechanism in China Taking a Proactive and Sustainable Approach

Charlotte Streck and Jostein Nygard, Andrew Murray - January 2005

Featured as a spotlight article in the SinoSphere Journal of THE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR CHINA’S ENVIRONMENT (PACE) Vol. 8 Issue, 1 May 2005, Beijing, pp. 5-12, this article discusses the potential for China to participate in the CDM, the variations across sectoral potential, and means to facilitate and capitalize upon development of CDM projects in the country.

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Can the EU emission trading scheme support CDM forestry?

Can the EU emission trading scheme support CDM forestry?

Charlotte Streck, Bernhard Schlamadinger, Benoit Bosquet, Ian Noble, Michael Dutschke, Neil Bird - January 2005

Can the EU emission trading scheme support CDM forestry? (2005), by Charlotte Streck and Bernhard Schlamadinger, Benoit Bosquet, Ian Noble, Michael Dutschke, Neil Bird, published in Climate Policy, Vol. 5 Issue 2, Oxford University Press, London.

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World Bank Carbon Finance Business: <em>Contracts and Emission Reduction Purchase Transactions</em>

World Bank Carbon Finance Business: Contracts and Emission Reduction Purchase Transactions

by Charlotte Streck - January 2005

World Bank Carbon Finance Business: Contracts and Emission Reduction Purchase Transactions, by Charlotte Streck in: Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms (2005), Charlotte Streck with David Freestone (eds), Oxford University Press, London.

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Joint Implementation: History, Requirements, and Challenges

Joint Implementation: History, Requirements, and Challenges

by Charlotte Streck - January 2005

Joint Implementation: History, Requirements, and Challenges, by Charlotte Streck, in: Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms (2005), Charlotte Streck with David Freestone (eds).  Oxford University Press, London.

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Emissions Trading and Joint Implementation in Accession Countries

Emissions Trading and Joint Implementation in Accession Countries

by Mercedes Fernandez and Leonardo Massai - January 2005

Emissions Trading and Joint Implementation in Accession Countries (2005), by Mercedes Fernandez and Leonardo Massai, published in EEP Network: developing legal and economic instruments to implement climate policy, Eckard Rehbinder and Michael Bothe (eds.), Eleven Publishing House, Utrecht.

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The EU and Climate Change (2005)

The EU and Climate Change (2005)

by Charlotte Streck and David Freestone - January 2005

The EU and Climate Change (2005), by Charlotte Streck and David Freestone, published in reflections on 30 Years of EU Environmental Law, A High Level of Protection?, Richard Macroy (ed.), The Avosetta Series (7), Europa Law Publishing, Groningen, pp.87-106.

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Synergies between the Emissions Trading Proposal and the IPPC Directive

Synergies between the Emissions Trading Proposal and the IPPC Directive

by Mercedes Fernandez - May 2003

Synergies between the Emissions Trading Proposal and the IPPC Directive (2003), by Mercedes Fernandez, published in ELNI, Vol.1, Öko-Institut, Darmstadt.

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Progress or Peril? Partnerships and Networks in Global Environmental Governance

Progress or Peril? Partnerships and Networks in Global Environmental Governance

by Charlotte Streck, Jan Martin Witte and Thorsten Benner - May 2003

Progress or Peril? Partnerships and Networks in Global Environmental Governance, by Charlotte Streck, Jan Martin Witte and Thorsten Benner (eds.) (2003), The Post-Johannesburg Agenda, Yale RIS, New Haven.

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Defining Investment Additionality for CDM projects – practical approaches

Defining Investment Additionality for CDM projects – practical approaches

by Sandra Greiner and Axel Michaelowa - January 2003

Defining Investment Additionality for CDM projects – practical approaches (2003), by Sandra Greiner and Axel Michaelowa, Energy Policy 31, pp.1007-1015.

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The World Summit on Sustainable Development <em>Partnerships as New Tools in Environmental Governance</em>

The World Summit on Sustainable Development Partnerships as New Tools in Environmental Governance

- December 2002

The World Summit on Sustainable Development: Partnerships as New Tools in Environmental Governance (2004), by Charlotte Streck , published in Yearbook of International Environmental Law 2002, Vol.13, Oxford University Press, London.

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Global Public Policy Networks as Coalitions for Change

Global Public Policy Networks as Coalitions for Change

by Charlotte Streck - May 2002

Global Public Policy Networks as Coalitions for Change (2002), by Charlotte Streck, published in Esty, Ivanova (eds). Global Environmental Governance, Options and Opportunities, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven.

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Sharing the Climate Policy Burden in the EU

Sharing the Climate Policy Burden in the EU

by Toke Aidt and Sandra Greiner - January 2002

Sharing the Climate Policy Burden in the EU (2002), by Toke Aidt and Sandra Greiner, Discussion Paper N. 176, Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Hamburg.

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Misc Documents

PRESS RELEASE <em>USAID supports Lao PDR’s national REDD+ framework</em>

PRESS RELEASE USAID supports Lao PDR’s national REDD+ framework

- August 2013

The Lao Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MoNRE), with support from USAID’s regional Lowering Emissions in Asia’s Forests (LEAF) program organized a workshop in Vientiane on National REDD+ Accounting on August 7. The event, chaired by Mr. Khamphanh Nanthavong Director General of MoNRE’s Department of Forest Resources Management, was attended by fifty participants from MoNRE, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), other Government of Lao agencies and development partners involved in Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+).

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WORKSHOP  “INTERNATIONAL FOREST PROTECTION and REDD+ PARTNERSHIPS“ - SUMMARY

WORKSHOP “INTERNATIONAL FOREST PROTECTION and REDD+ PARTNERSHIPS“ - SUMMARY

- May 2013

Climate Focus, in cooperation with the Moore Foundation and the Climate Land Use Alliance, is helping to catalyze new subnational partnerships in support of international forest protection and the Governors’ Climate and Forest Task Force (GCF).

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Kooperationsmöglichkeiten Forstwirtschaft

Kooperationsmöglichkeiten Forstwirtschaft

Unique - May 2013

Dr. Timm Tennigkeit of UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH gave a presentation for a workshop “International Forest Protection and REDD+ Partnership”, co-hosted by Climate Focus and the Forest Research Institute Baden-Württemberg in Freiburg, Germany, on April 22, 2013.

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Sub-National REDD+ Partnerships: An Assessment of Opportunities

Sub-National REDD+ Partnerships: An Assessment of Opportunities

GCF Taskforce, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Climate Focus - May 2012

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Presentations

Global Landscapes Forum <em>Rolling up our sleeves on agricultural mitigation for landscape benefits</em>

Global Landscapes Forum Rolling up our sleeves on agricultural mitigation for landscape benefits

- March 2014

Dr Charlotte Streck was among the speakers at the GLF13 Discussion Forum on 17 November, 2013, which took place alongside the COP 19 global climate talks in Warsaw. This session highlights the main focus areas for mitigation action and identifies some of the knowledge gaps. It examines whether mitigation activities can be integrated with food security and climate change adaptation goals, and by asking the critical question of how this fits with a landscape approach.

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CLIMATE FOCUS ADVISES PAPUA NEW GUINEA’S NATIONAL CLIMATE OFFICE ON ITS CLIMATE POLICY

CLIMATE FOCUS ADVISES PAPUA NEW GUINEA’S NATIONAL CLIMATE OFFICE ON ITS CLIMATE POLICY

John Costenbader - August 2013

On July 17th, John Costenbader of the Washington, DC office presented on national climate change policy design lessons to a consultative meeting of civil society and NGO stakeholders at the Office of Climate Change and Development (OCCD) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. The meeting and John’s visit occurred in the context of a two-week collaboration of Climate Focus and its project partners from the USAID Lowering Emissions from Asia’s Forests (LEAF) project with representatives of the OCCD Office. Together LEAF and the OCCD gathered stakeholder inputs on the draft national climate change policy and worked to develop a more consolidated national policy.

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How to sell your carbon credits in a difficult market?

How to sell your carbon credits in a difficult market?

Adriaan Korthuis - July 2013

On the 3rd of July Adriaan Korthuis gave a webinar on “How to sell your carbon credits in a difficult market?”.  The webinar explained how to maximise value of carbon credits in both the short-term and in the medium-long term.  This included, for example, opportunities in the voluntary and compliance markets and options such as dedicated carbon credit purchase funds and emerging carbon markets.

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Developing Carbon Credits, which model is right for you? <em>The role of a humanitarian organisation</em>

Developing Carbon Credits, which model is right for you? The role of a humanitarian organisation

Adriaan Korthuis - May 2013

Climate Focus is assisting organizations in the evaluation of programme choices. While the global carbon market is witnessing its most dramatic downturn to date, clean cook stove projects are by comparison still going strong under both the compliance and voluntary carbon market, particularly the Gold Standard. With great ancillary benefits besides carbon, many cook stove projects are able to tap into the premium segment of the market with prices as high as EUR 7 for a cook stove project in a least developed country.

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Developing Carbon Credits, which model is right for you? <em>An introduction to carbon project development</em>

Developing Carbon Credits, which model is right for you? An introduction to carbon project development

Adriaan Korthuis - May 2013

Climate Focus is assisting organizations in the evaluation of programme choices. While the global carbon market is witnessing its most dramatic downturn to date, clean cook stove projects are by comparison still going strong under both the compliance and voluntary carbon market, particularly the Gold Standard. With great ancillary benefits besides carbon, many cook stove projects are able to tap into the premium segment of the market with prices as high as EUR 7 for a cook stove project in a least developed country.

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Developing carbon credits using your business strengths

Developing carbon credits using your business strengths

Sandra Greiner and Hilda Galt - May 2013

Climate Focus is assisting organizations in the evaluation of programme choices.  While the global carbon market is witnessing its most dramatic downturn to date, clean cook stove projects are by comparison still going strong under both the compliance and voluntary carbon market, particularly the Gold Standard. With great ancillary benefits besides carbon, many cook stove projects are able to tap into the premium segment of the market with prices as high as EUR 7 for a cook stove project in a least developed country.

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NAMAs and REDD+: Relationship and main issues for consideration

NAMAs and REDD+: Relationship and main issues for consideration

Climate Focus - May 2013

Climate Focus conducted a study of REDD+ and NAMAs. The initial findings of this study entitled “REDD+ and NAMAs: Relationship and main issues for consideration” were presented by Luke Pritchard to the GIZ REDD+ and NAMA working groups on May 10, 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. The presentation looked at opportunities and challenges for the integration of REDD+ and NAMAs as well as the presentation of a Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats analysis looking at synergies and divergences in the two initiatives.

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WALDPARTNERSCHAFTEN

WALDPARTNERSCHAFTEN

Charlotte Streck - May 2013

Charlotte Streck gave an introductory presentation “Waldpartnerschaften” (English: Forest partnerships) at a workshop “International Forest Protection and REDD+ Partnership”, co-hosted by Climate Focus and the Forest Research Institute Baden-Württemberg in Freiburg, Germany, on April 22, 2013.

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Marcos Juridicos Nacionales y Subnacionales para REDD+

Marcos Juridicos Nacionales y Subnacionales para REDD+

John Costenbader - April 2013

John Costenbader presented an overview of national and subnational regulatory frameworks for REDD+ on Thursday, April 25, 2013 to a postgraduate class on Climate Change Law and Economy of the Latin American School of Social Sciences (FLACSO). The interdisciplinary class is coordinated and co-taught from Buenos Aires by Raul Estrada and Soledad Aguilar, with a global group of mid-career environmental professionals.

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REDD+ and Blue Carbon: <em>Corporate involvement and on-the-ground perspectives</em>

REDD+ and Blue Carbon: Corporate involvement and on-the-ground perspectives

Stephanie Roe - April 2013

Stephanie Roe presented at a panel session on the subject of ecosystem services, REDD+ and Blue Carbon at the Sustainable Ocean Summit sponsored by the World Ocean Council on Wednesday, April 24, 2013 in Washington, DC.

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Adriaan Korthuis taught a webinar on carbon finance for biomass projects

Adriaan Korthuis taught a webinar on carbon finance for biomass projects

Adriaan Korthuis - March 2013

On Tuesday, 26 February, Adriaan Korthuis taught a webinar on Carbon Finance for Biomass Projects. You may watch the webinar here.

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Aspectos Jurídicos e Institucionales

Aspectos Jurídicos e Institucionales

John Costenbader - November 2012

John Costenbader of the Washington, DC office presented on legal and institutional aspects for REDD+ approaches in a one and one-half day workshop “Elements to Construct a Nested Approach in Mexico” in Mexico City, DF on July 23-24, 2012. The workshop, funded by USAID and coordinated by the Mexican Foundation for the Conservation of Nature (FMCN, from the Spanish title) focused on building capacity and developing thinking towards “nesting” REDD+ project-level, sub-national and national-level jurisdiction programs and initiatives with certification and verification processes in Mexico. In particular, the workshop drew on the recent draft guidelines from the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) for Jurisdictional and Nested REDD+, which was developed by a team lead by Robert O’Sullivan of the DC office. The workshop was attended by a variety of environmental and forest managers, international negotiators, and other members of Mexican state and federal governments, as well as many members of civil society. 

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Salvaguardias

Salvaguardias

John Costenbader - November 2012

John Costenbader of the Washington, DC office presented on safeguards for nested REDD+ approaches in a one and one-half day workshop “Elements to Construct a Nested Approach in Mexico” in Mexico City, DF on July 23-24, 2012. The workshop, funded by USAID and coordinated by the Mexican Foundation for the Conservation of Nature (FMCN, from the Spanish title) focused on building capacity and developing thinking towards “nesting” REDD+ project-level, sub-national and national-level jurisdiction programs and initiatives with certification and verification processes in Mexico. In particular, the workshop drew on the recent draft guidelines from the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) for Jurisdictional and Nested REDD+, which was developed by a team lead by Robert O’Sullivan of the DC office. The workshop was attended by a variety of environmental and forest managers, international negotiators, and other members of Mexican state and federal governments, as well as many members of civil society. 

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Legal Preparedness for REDD+

Legal Preparedness for REDD+

Darragh Conway - September 2012

Darragh Conway presented at the expert meeting "Legal Preparedness for REDD+: Exploring Needs and Source of Country Support" in Rome on 25 September, 2012. The meeting took place as part of the 2012 session of the FAO's Committee on Forestry. The presentation dicusses the support of Climate Focus to REDD+ projects and legal frameworks and highlights common legal issues.

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Financing Climate-Smart Agriculture

Financing Climate-Smart Agriculture

Charlotte Streck - September 2012

Charlotte Streck was a featured panelist at the Brussels Development Briefing held on September 27, 2012 which focused on the subject ‘Climate change, agriculture and food security: proven approaches and new investments’.  Charlotte presented on the subject of "Agriculture, food security and climate change: What's new?"

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Climate Finance: Benefits for Small Scale Renewables in Developing Countries <em>Climate finance webinar for the Alliance for Rural Electricification</em>

Climate Finance: Benefits for Small Scale Renewables in Developing Countries Climate finance webinar for the Alliance for Rural Electricification

Adriaan Korthuis - December 2011

This webinar for Ruralec brings you up to date on what climate finance can do for renewable energy in developing countries.

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Private Capital Market Perspectives in Agriculture

Private Capital Market Perspectives in Agriculture

Michael Coren - April 2010

The April 20, 2010 presentation examines the state of the market for emission reductions from agricultural activities and conditions for future private investment.

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From Copenhagen to Cancun <em>The Future of Legal Regime Governing Climate Change</em>

From Copenhagen to Cancun The Future of Legal Regime Governing Climate Change

Charlotte Streck - March 2010

On Monday, March 22, 2010, Charlotte Streck gave a lecture at the law school of the University of Wisconsin. In her lecture titled "From Copenhagen to Cancun: The Future of Legal Regime Governing Climate Change" she provided an analysis of the developments in at COP-15 in Copenhagen and advance thoughts on the role and future of the international climate regime.

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Post Copenhagen Lecture

Post Copenhagen Lecture

Charlotte Streck - March 2010

On Monday, March 22, 2010, Charlotte Streck gave a lecture at the law school of the University of Wisconsin. In her lecture titled "From Copenhagen to Cancun: The Future of Legal Regime Governing Climate Change" she provided an analysis of the developments in at COP-15 in Copenhagen and advance thoughts on the role and future of the international climate regime.

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Yale Carbon Finance Series: Financing Forest Carbon

Yale Carbon Finance Series: Financing Forest Carbon

Michael Coren - December 2009

Yale University has released “Carbon Finance II: Investing in Forests for Climate Protection,” a collection of lectures given during the 2008–2009 Carbon Finance Speaker Series at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and the Yale School of Management. Climate Focus’s Michael Coren gave a panel discussion highlighting major trends in forest carbon markets and underscoring the importance of policy for investment security.

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Public-Private Rule-Making and Implementing in the New Carbon Economy

Public-Private Rule-Making and Implementing in the New Carbon Economy

Charlotte Streck - May 2008

Public-Private Rule-Making and Implementing in the New Carbon Economy, by Charlotte Streck, presented at the workshop in Climate Governance beyond Rhetoric Deliberation and rule making along the public-private frontier at the University of Lund, Sweden, on 29 May 2008.

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CDM en JI projecten - de bronnen van CERs en ERUs

CDM en JI projecten - de bronnen van CERs en ERUs

Jelmer Hoogzaad - May 2007

CDM en JI projecten - de bronnen van CERs en ERUs, by Jelmer Hoogzaad, Congres Emissiehandel 2007, 15 May 2007, Ede, Netherlands.

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Track 1 Joint Implementation

Track 1 Joint Implementation

Charlotte Streck - February 2007

Track 1 Joint Implementation, by Charlotte Streck, presented at UNFCCC JI Workshop in Bonn, Germany, 14 February 2007.

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Protecting forests to mitigate global climate change - presentation

Protecting forests to mitigate global climate change - presentation

Charlotte Streck - January 2007

Protecting forests to mitigate global climate change, (in press) paper prepared for a DFID brainstorming session on ‘Illegal logging and associated trade: exploring future options’, held on 24 January 2007, at Chatham House in London.

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Principles of Carbon Contracting. Asian Development Bank, Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (gtz)

Principles of Carbon Contracting. Asian Development Bank, Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (gtz)

Charlotte Streck - January 2007

Principles of Carbon Contracting. Asian Development Bank, Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (gtz), by Charlotte Streck, presented at Capacity building workshop in cooperation with BAPPENAS, 11 January 2007, Jakarta, Indonesia.

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Legislative Approaches Towards Emission Trading <em>The Kyoto Protocol and the EU ETS</em>

Legislative Approaches Towards Emission Trading The Kyoto Protocol and the EU ETS

Charlotte Streck - November 2006

Presented at the Side Event of the Centre of International Sustainable Development Law (CISDL), 12th session of the Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC, 15 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya.

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JI and CDM in practice: Projects and market developments

JI and CDM in practice: Projects and market developments

Charlotte Streck - October 2006

JI and CDM in practice: Projects and market developments, by Charlotte Streck, Climate Dialogues, Canadian Chamber of Commerce, 31 October 2006, Hong Kong.

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Desafíos y oportunidades de las energías renovables en relación con los mecanismos flexibles del Protocolo de Kyoto

Desafíos y oportunidades de las energías renovables en relación con los mecanismos flexibles del Protocolo de Kyoto

Mercedes Fernandez Armenteros - September 2006

Desafíos y oportunidades de las energías renovables en relación con los mecanismos flexibles del Protocolo de Kyoto, by Mercedes Fernandez Armenteros, presented at Primera conferencia Reuters sobre mercados energéticos, on 28 September 2006, Madrid, Spain.

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Legal issues: CDM and JI transactions

Legal issues: CDM and JI transactions

Robert O’Sullivan - September 2006

Legal issues: CDM and JI transactions, by Robert O’Sullivan, presented at workshop: “CDM and JI – chances for German technologies” in Hamburg, Germany, 9 March 2006.

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Opportunities in the carbon market for Shanghai Futures Exchange

Opportunities in the carbon market for Shanghai Futures Exchange

Charlotte Streck and Sandra Greiner - August 2006

Opportunities in the carbon market for Shanghai Futures Exchange, by Charlotte Streck and Sandra Greiner, presented at Shanghai Futures Exchange, on 28 August 2006, Shanghai, China.

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Transacciones de Carbono a través del Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio y Acción Conjunta: presente y futuro

Transacciones de Carbono a través del Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio y Acción Conjunta: presente y futuro

Mercedes Fernandez Armenteros - August 2006

Transacciones de Carbono a través del Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio y Acción Conjunta: presente y futuro, by Mercedes Fernandez Armenteros, presented at Economía y cambio climático: bases para un tratado post-Kyoto, Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo, on 31 July-4 August 2006, Santander, Spain.

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Sector Privado Europeo y MDL: estrategia y requisitos en la compra de CERs

Sector Privado Europeo y MDL: estrategia y requisitos en la compra de CERs

Mercedes Fernandez Armenteros - June 2006

Sector Privado Europeo y MDL: estrategia y requisitos en la compra de CERs, byMercedes Fernandez Armenteros, presented at MDL: Oportunidades de negocio y cooperación entre Alemania y Argentina, Cámara de Comercio Argentino-Alemana, on 7-8 June 2006, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Exclusions vs. inclusions of land-use offsets in emissions trading system: A barrier for linking?

Exclusions vs. inclusions of land-use offsets in emissions trading system: A barrier for linking?

Charlotte Streck - May 2006

Exclusions vs. inclusions of land-use offsets in emissions trading system: A barrier for linking?, by Charlotte Streck, presented together with Joanneum Research, at a workshop on linking of emission trading schemes organized by the Wuppertal Institut in Brussels, 29 May 2006.

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Too many mechanisms, too few institutions <em>Challenges and chances for EITs</em>

Too many mechanisms, too few institutions Challenges and chances for EITs

Charlotte Streck - May 2006

Too many mechanisms, too few institutions: Challenges and chances for EITs, by Charlotte Streck, presented at SBSTA in Bonn, Germany, 25 May 2006.

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Introduction to legal and contractual aspects of CDM projects

Introduction to legal and contractual aspects of CDM projects

Robert O’Sullivan - May 2006

Introduction to legal and contractual aspects of CDM projects, by Robert O’Sullivan, presented at the University of Twente, Netherlands, 23 May 2006.

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Markets for LULUCF Credits b. Answering the Liability Question: Making Temporary Credits Compatible with the EU ETS

Markets for LULUCF Credits b. Answering the Liability Question: Making Temporary Credits Compatible with the EU ETS

Charlotte Streck - May 2006

Markets for LULUCF Credits b. Answering the Liability Question: Making Temporary Credits Compatible with the EU ETS, by Charlotte Streck, presented at Carbon Expo, 10-11 May 2006, Cologne, Germany.

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Transacciones de carbono (MDL y AC): <em>Proceso contractual y mitigación de riesgos a través de los contratos</em>

Transacciones de carbono (MDL y AC): Proceso contractual y mitigación de riesgos a través de los contratos

Mercedes Fernandez Armenteros - May 2006

Transacciones de carbono (MDL y AC): Proceso contractual y mitigación de riesgos a través de los contratos, by Mercedes Fernandez Armenteros, presented at Mercados, Financiación y Fondos de Carbono, Expo CO2, 4-5 May 2006, Barcelona, Spain.

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Legal issues: JI transactions

Legal issues: JI transactions

Charlotte Streck - April 2006

Legal issues: JI transactions, by Charlotte Streck, presented at a Moscow workshop in Moscow, Russia, 15 April 2006.

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The EU as climate change leader? The EU Emission Trading Scheme

The EU as climate change leader? The EU Emission Trading Scheme

Charlotte Streck - April 2006

The EU as climate change leader? The EU Emission Trading Scheme, by Charlotte Streck, presented at Brodies Lecture, University of Edinburgh, 1 March 2006.

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International transaction log, ITL

International transaction log, ITL

Adriaan Korthuis - March 2006

International transaction log, ITL, by Adriaan Korthuis, presented at the PointCarbon conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1 March 2006.

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The status of CDM and JI. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme – One year on

The status of CDM and JI. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme – One year on

Charlotte Streck - February 2006

The status of CDM and JI. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme – One year on, by Charlotte Streck, presented on 8 February 2006, Université de Leuven, Groot Begijnhof/Faculty Club, Leuven, Belgium.

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The Carbon Capture and Storage under the Kyoto Protocol

The Carbon Capture and Storage under the Kyoto Protocol

Jelmer Hoogzaad - February 2006

The Carbon Capture and Storage under the Kyoto Protocol, by Jelmer Hoogzaad, presented at UNECE Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Coal in Sustainable Development, 2nd session, Geneva, Switzerland, February 2006.

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Carbon finance: Opportunities, pitfalls and advantages for small scale projects

Carbon finance: Opportunities, pitfalls and advantages for small scale projects

Robert O’Sullivan - December 2005

This presentation was made by Robert O’Sullivan at BORDA International Workshop: Boosting basic needs services in Africa, 12-13 December 2005.  It covers how small scale project development can best be designed to ensure success.

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Chances and Risks of AAU Backed Green Investment Schemes

Chances and Risks of AAU Backed Green Investment Schemes

Jelmer Hoogzaad - October 2005

Chances and Risks of AAU Backed Green Investment Schemes, by Jelmer Hoogzaad, presented at Climate Technology Initiative, Leipzig, Germany, October 2005.

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